Sanskrit & Armenian: Mothers of ALL Indo-European Languages?

Languages are like humans: they undergo and, in the past, have undergone evolution to evolve into the languages we know today. All languages–English, French, Arabic, Japanese–have undergone language evolution. Conversely, that means that modern languages have ancestors that existed many years ago. In most cases, multiple languages have the same common ancestor.

One such common ancestor is Proto-Indo-European: the language that gave rise to ALL Indo-European languages like English, Hindi, Persian, French and Greek.

So, what was Proto-Indo-European like? Does Proto-Indo-European still exist? Well, there are two candidates: Sanskrit and Armenian.

Are either of these two languages the mother of all modern Indo-European languages?


Babbel_generic-badgeFirstly, as I mentioned in the Languages of the Ancient World post, Sanskrit is a language whose first written accounts date back to 3000 BC. While it was spoken pretty widely in the Indus Valley Civilizations, it was almost completely extinct by the seventh century AD. Despite this, it has experienced a slight revival, and today, around 14,000 people claim to speak the language natively.

Further, Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, part of the Indo-Aryan Languages branch, relating it to other languages like Gujarati and Hindi. Sanskrit is a highly inflected language: it has three grammatical genders, three numbers, and eight cases. Because of this, Sanskrit has a relatively free word order, but there is a strong tendency for speakers to employ a subject-object-verb word order.

Perhaps most interestingly, it is thought among certain scholars that Sanskrit is the root of all modern Indo-European languages. But more on that later.



First printed Armenian language Bible, 1666

Armenian, unlike Sanskrit, is a relatively new language. The first written account of Armenian dates back to 500 AD—almost 3500 years after the first written accounts of Sanskrit. Further, Armenian occupies is own branch of the Indo-European language family, and today there are an estimated 12 million speakers of Armenian in Armenia and abroad. Armenian has a fairly large consonant inventory, chalking in around 34 individual consonant sounds compared to English’s 24 consonant sounds. Further, there are even more consonant sounds in some Armenian dialects. Grammatically, Armenian also has a subject-object-verb word order, no grammatical gender, and seven noun cases.

Further, like Sanskrit, some scholars also believe that Armenian is the root of all modern Indo-European languages. So, who’s right? Are either of these languages the root of all modern Indo-European languages, or is it another language entirely?

The Mother of all Indo-European Languages

The idea that Sanskrit could be the mother for all Indo-European languages can be traced back to the scholar Fredriech Schlegel in the 1800s. He is often deemed a pioneer of comparative linguistics (the study of how languages are related), and his work led to much development in modern linguistics, including Grimm’s Law. However, one of his most controversial claims is this one that includes Sanskrit.

Friedrich Schlegel
Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829)

Schlegel’s hypothesis that Sanskrit is the mother of all IE languages is based on the fact that when Sanskrit was first studied by European scholars in the 19th century, they discovered that it was not only a very old language, but it shared a surprising amount of linguistic similarity to other Indo-European languages. For example, if we look at the word mother in Sanskrit (mātṛ), we can see it is very close to other old Indo-European languages. In Latin, it is “māter”; In Persian, مادر “mɒdær”; In Greek: μήτηρ “mētēr”. There are many other such examples of Sanskrit’s relation to other Indo-European languages.

For the scientific standards of that time, this was enough for many to believe that Sanskrit was in fact the mother of all Indo-European languages—or at least a very, very close descendent of proto-Indo-European. However, we now know that deeming something the “oldest” is not valid proof for a theory, especially one that attempts to find the “Mother of all Indo-Eurpean languages”, but there are still some scholars who believe this theory even in the modern day.

Related: Is Tamil the OLDEST Language in the World?

A more well-supported but no-less-controversial “Mother of all Indo-European Languages” candidate is, in fact, Armenian. This theory, appropriate titled the “Armenian Hypothesis” was developed by linguists Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Invaov in 1985.

First and foremost, they hypothesized that all Indo-European languages evolved from the same proto-Indo-European language spoken in the Armenian Highlands. They relied on something called the Glottalic Theory, a hypothesis that says that Proto-Indo-European featured ejective stops (p’, t’, k’)—essentially click sounds. Due to the fact that some modern dialects of Armenian still retain these ejective stop sounds, and further, that there are studies that genetically trace Europeans back to the Armenian Highlands, the two researchers claim that the Armenian language is the closest language we have to what Proto-Indo-European would have sounded like.

The Armenian Highlands (Photo: Alexander Mkhitaryan B)

They even go so far as to suggest that Armenian is a language that directly evolved from proto-Indo-European. The only problem? For Armenian to be the Mother of all Indo-European languages, there would have to be accounts of Armenian from much earlier than 500 AD. Without them, we would have to assume that somehow Proto-Indo-European wasn’t spoken until after languages like Latin and Greek were spoken, which wouldn’t make sense. However, this fact doesn’t necessarily mean that Armenian wasn’t spoken thousands of years ago, though. Maybe people just didn’t feel like writing any of it down.

As you can imagine, these theories have been met with a lot of criticism. But what do you think? Are either of these languages the “Mother of all Indo-European Languages”? Let me know what you think in the comments below.

12 thoughts on “Sanskrit & Armenian: Mothers of ALL Indo-European Languages?

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  1. Brother, I don’t know the Armenian language much but feels wherever a place called “stan” like Uzbekistan, Afghanistan etc. is definitely connected with Sanskrit and wherever there is numbers like two, three, penta, hexa, octa etc. defineitely having connection with Sanskrit. Even Mother, Father, Brother words are all related to Sanskrit. May be we have to dig greater to get the information without thinking negative about any language. One of the great Sanskrit scholar Panini was born in Afghanistan. Most of the Hindu/ Indian scripture was written from or near Pakistan and Afghanistan and India. May be Pakistan is the main source of Sanskrit which they are trying to erase. But old Sanskrit scripture was found in Uzbekistan during Archaeological excavation. Means there is some relation. Recently I have seen one Hindi song was sung by Armenian President “Awara hoon” almost perfectly. I don’t know how but only God knows that we are all related.


    1. “-stan” suffixes are from Iranian, not from Sanskrit.

      But you’re right, Indo-Iranians live throughout much of Asia–from Turkey (the Kurds), into Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepa, and Bhutan.

      And of course Pakistan and Bangladesh were part of India-proper until fairly recently.


    2. In regards to the “stan” suffix (which essentially means “land of” or “land”) Armenia is known as Armenia only outside of Armenia. To Armenians it is known as Haiastan as “Hai” translates as “Armenian”


  2. The oldest records of Sanskrit don’t date to 3000 BCE. They date to sometime between 1700-1300 BCE., which is when the Rig Veda was written.

    Also, we KNOW that the Armenian language existed at least 1100 years before it was written down because the Iranians and Greeks mentioned the Armenian language as early as the 6th century BCE, it’s just that we do not have any surviving records of the Armenian language until The Bible was translated into Armenian in the 5th century CE. So we KNOW that Armenian, as a language, is at least 2600 years old, but that’s only this from secondary sources (for example, the ancient Greek historians Hecataeus of Miletus, Xenofon, and Strabo, all of whom mention the Armenian language in their respective writings) and not primary sources.


    1. Just like Armenian was older than written evidence so was the Rig Veda which was preserved orally for a long time before written down.


      1. Yes. You and I are not contradicting each other. I was talking about written records specifically, not oral. Sanskrit is undoubtedly quite old. But the author of this article wrote that Sanskrit’s “first written accounts date back to 3000 BC” which is more than one thousand years earlier than the actual first written accounts of Sanskrit. In other words, it’s untrue. Written accounts do not equal oral transmission!


    2. Oh India’s history is a bit conflicted on that part. The date you are mentioning here, 1700-1300 BC, is according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, proposed by German born philologist, which agrees that aryans invaded India from middle east, and around the same time Indus valley civilization ended(leading to another theory that aryan invasion was the reason behind the end of this civilization). When ever you read this theory, do keep it in mind, the time it was originated in, the letter Max Muller wrote to the Duke of Argyll and British connections.
      Next theory is Indigenous Aryan Theory, which states that origin of Vedas go as old as 3000 BC, with Mahabharat war happening in 3139 BC. A theory very promoted by Indian nationalists to glorify India. Again, a theory, can’t be said true or not.


  3. To call Armenian a relatively new language is laughable. By the way, I’m pretty sure there was an older alphabet predating the one mentioned in the article


  4. Dear Michael Cristiano, Just like Armenian is older than written evidence so is the Rig Veda which was preserved orally for a long time before it was written down. I believe you should put together a new video, this time on the oral origin of PIE languages. The subject should be the ‘ Oral Sanskrit the mother and origin of all Indo-European languages’ taking us to the beginning of vedic literature. through to Armenian Greek etc.
    Below are the two Sanskrit epics that I believe inspired the ancient authors of the Armenian language starting with the epic of Hayk their progenitor.
    The most important influence is primarily the moral influence, the importance of virtue, in the life of a citizen and in the ideals of the formation of a state or of a functioning society. The genre also includes teachings on the goals of human life, metaphysics if you like. They depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal husband, and the ideal king. Both the Mahabharata, and Ramayana present the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in the narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and ethical elements. Astronomically, the narrative of the Ramayana took place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga in 5301 BC. Attempts to date the events using methods of archaeoastronomy have produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimates ranging from the late 4th to the mid-2nd millennium BCE.


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